Sleep patterns have been associated with the development of cancers, although the association between sleep duration and breast cancer remains controversial. The purpose of our study was to explore the relationship between sleep duration and breast cancer risk. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched, and restricted cubic splines were used to explore the dose-response relationship. Data from 415,865 participants were derived from 10 studies. A J-shaped nonlinear trend was found between sleep duration and breast cancer incidence (Pnon-linear = 0.012); compared with the reference hours (6 h or 7 h), with increasing sleep hours, the risk of breast cancer increased (Ptrend = 0.028). Moreover, a nonlinear relationship was found between sleep duration and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (Pnon-linear = 0.013); the risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer increased with increasing sleep hours compared to the reference hours (Ptrend = 0.024). However, no nonlinear relationship was found between sleep duration and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer; the risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer was 1.035 for every additional sleep hour. Compared to women with the reference number of sleep hours, women with a longer sleep duration might have a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, especially estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.